The overarching goal of my research is to determine why some students struggle more than others in mathematics. My research seeks to identify underlying cognitive processes and individual differences that help explain mathematics learning and to examine how we can use this knowledge to design effective instructional strategies. Given the well established relationship between executive functions and mathematics skills, my first two lines of research examine how and why executive functions are related to mathematics achievement to understand how researchers can design interventions that compensate for poor executive function or mathematics skills. My third line of research examines how students’ early home and school experiences promote or inhibit mathematics learning and executive functions with particular attention to how these experiences differ based on students’ race/ethnicity. I employ longitudinal, experimental, and meta-analytic methods to investigate these interests.