The overarching goal of my research is to determine why some students struggle more than others in mathematics. My research seeks to identify underlying cognitive processes that help explain math learning and to leverage this knowledge to design effective learning materials. Given the well established relationship between executive functions, a goal directed processing resource that controls our thoughts, behaviors and emotions, and mathematics skills, my first two lines of research examine how and why executive functions are related to mathematics achievement to understand how researchers can design learning materials that compensate for lower performance on executive function or math tasks. My third line of research examines how students’ early home and school experiences promote or inhibit executive functions and math skills with particular focus on to how these experiences differ based on students’ race/ethnicity and family resources. I employ longitudinal, experimental, and meta-analytic methods to investigate these interests.